Tuesday, 13 January 2009

Nota berkaitan pertuturan anak-anak...

Sebelum ni aku ade post satu entry berkaitan "speech development" kan...

ari ni baru sampai note/handout yg aku mintak kat speaker tu
( tak byk pun.. sikit2 je dia bagi.... ).... antara serba sedikit yg dia ceritakan/terangkan...

aku akan salin sedikit sebyk apa yg boleh dikongsi disini ok...


Communication in the Early Years

(Speech Pathologist- QLD Health)

1. What is communication?
- start from birth
- may be verbal or non verbal
- many ways to communicate : touching, body language, listening, speaking, reading & playing

2. Communication Development under 1 year old

3. Communication Development 1-2 year old
- Children have between 50-200 words that they use regularly
- We able to understand 50-75% of the words they say
- They are starting to put 2 and sometimes 3 words together to make little sentences
(eg. more bikkie, daddy go car)
- They are able to answer simple questions such as 'What's that?' and 'Where's daddy?'
- They can follow simple instructions with 2 key words, such as 'put the ball in the box', give mummy the ball', 'get your hat and the ball'

4. Communication Development 3 year old
- They are using longer sentence of up to five words (most between 3 & 5 words)
- They are using 'and' to start to link sentences and describing words
- We can understand 70-80% of what they say
- They can understand instructions with 3 key words
(give the big ball to mummy) -> when they pay attention !
- They can have a simple conversation
- They are constantly learning new words
- They are using the following sounds :
p, b, h, w, n, ng (as in ring), d, t, k, g, y

5. Normal Development A 4 year old
- Uses longer sentences of up to 4-8 words in length
- We can understand 90% of the sounds they say
- Asks and answers simple questions
(who, what, where, why)
- Generally uses correct grammar
- Talks about experiences, and the future
- They are just starting to use the 'j', 's', and 'z' sounds
- They are using all the sounds except r, th, v and two consonants together (eg. 'st', 'fl', 'kr')

What you can do to help your children learn to listen and talk

1. Strategies to use everyday
- You are the best teacher for your child
- Ensure activities are FUN -> children learn through play
- Child must experience success
- Say Less
- Stress the words
- Go Slow
- Show - use visual helpers, poiting & gestures
- Observe, Wait & Listen
- Be face to face
- Talk to your child

2. With young children
- copy the sounds babies make as this encourages two-way communication and turn taking
- as your child gets older, copy their actions, sound and words
- play simple games such as 'peek-a-boo'
- talk using little, simple sentences - > talk one word above your child's current level
- sing songs and rhymes together
- expand on simple words (eg. if the child says 'car', you say 'push the car')
- praise attempts to talk
- smile and show you are listening
- talk about what is happening; talk about what you are doing; talk about what your child is doing
- when you take children for a walk, or go to the park or other fun places, talk about these places to help them learn new words
- offer choices to help them use a word to choose
- use specific words
- set-up activities to reinforce their understanding of basic concepts (eg. under/behind), by playing obstacle courses or hiding games
- repeating words and phrases again and again and again
- correct imitation
- repeat back what they say and Add One Word
- wait 5 seconds after asking them a question
- use questions and comments to keep the interaction going
- use themes to build vocabulary
- encourage kids to use action words
- encourage kids to tell stories
- encourage kids to talk about the use of objects
- play rhyming games
- encourage kids to listen to beats of the word (syllables)
- encourage kids to listen to the sounds at the start of words especially their names

3. Strategies to boost development.... Reading Books
- Ensure reading FUN -> children learn best when things are fun
- Get FACE to FACE
- Say Less
- Stress
- Go Slow
- Show

Different types of books
- Books with bright colorful photographs or realistic picture
- Books with rhyme, rhythm, repetition or simple sentence
- Books with nursery rhymes
- Homemade books
- Wordless picture books
- Board books with thick pages
- Interactive books -> with things to touch or do such as make sound, lift flaps or make pictures move
- Short simple story books
- Family photo albums and homemade books with photos
- Books with predictable patterns and repetitive words or phrases
- Simple stories with a main character

There's more than one way to read a book
- You don't have to start at the beginning
- You can skip pages or not finish the book
- You can just talk about the pictures and not read the words
- You can change the words
- You can read the same book over and over again, even in one sitting

For children starting off with books -> books may not even be something to 'read' yet, but to use in different ways

Books lay the foundation for reading and writing

4. Strategies to boost development ... Communication
a) Speech
- corrected imitation
- work out which sounds are difficult
- tell the child how to make the sound
- sound play
- targeted activities
- practice short words -> longer words -> sentences
- is it a tat or a cat?
- be face to face
- use mirrors

b) Voice & Fluency
- need to be referred for specialist assessment
- try to reduce the amount of yelling, screaming & shouting
- encourage to slow down their rate of speech
- encourage to say the words - avoid word avoidance
- encourage shorter phrases


ni antara nota nye... saya hanya taip semula je....
jika ade masalah ngan anak anda.. jumpa pakar terapi kanak2 @ 'speech pathologist'


salwa@ibukauthar said...

salam kak rizza.tq so much for this entry.sy byk dpt ilmu melalui blog kak rizza.harap redhakan ilmu2 yg dipelajari secara maya ni.entry ttg speech dev. ni mmg kena dgn sy sbb anak sy tak reti ckp lg..sy mmg mengikuti artikel yg kak rizza post ttg speech dev.ni. tq.

mamadanish said...

Thank rizza..
good info

NeroEcha said...

Bagus ni Za,,thanks for the info..

maryaaa said...

salam rizza,

terima kasih sebab kongsi ilmu ni. Boleh cuba lepas ni.

sayangibu said...

Kak rizza..very informative...thanks kak...

arina said...

really kau re-type everything? waahhh bagusnyaaa! antara perkara yang dihitung diakhirat kelak ialah ilmu bermanfaat yang kita pass kat orang.

you've done well fren!


rizza said...

kawan2 semua... semoga dapat dimanfaat kan....

ana. ... tq ana.. ingat2 kan aku.. supaya byk berbakti lagi ...
yup aku retype semua.. cuma ade lagi 1-2 perenggan aku tak abis taip.... (utk yg under 1 years old... kalau ade yg berminat aku taip le nanti..)..kalau aku nak scan je... tak best..... tak nampak ayat2 penting tu.. hehheh.. saja nak kongsi... ilmu yg berharga ni....tak ternilai..


Tie said...

Hmmmm .....

Bagus tu sebagai panduan....

Anak2 kak tie dah besar2... yang bongsu tu umor 11 tahun... tapi selalu gak kena pantau...suka tiru bahasa (ganu ulu) kengkawan dia...

afafita wafitos said...

salam rizza..

a very good post! bnyk belajar...i pun tgh nak train my 2 month old baby fichita, hopefully adalah masa untuk start reading for her..

Anonymous said...

bleh sy copy & paste buat rujukan?

rizza said...

kak tie.. 11 thn tu masih kecik gi hehhe

afafita.. good luck!!!

cik anon... kenapa tidak kenalkan diri atau tinggalkan jejak?
sila kan jika sudi copy & paste.. semua tu utk rujukan bersama2 pembaca blog ini..